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Pollution of the aquatic environment occurs from many different sources including from oil refineries. Oil refinery effluents contain many different chemicals at different concentrations including ammonia, sulphides, phenol and hydrocarbons. The exact composition cannot however be generalised as it depends on the refinery and which units are in operation at any specific time. It is therefore difficult to predict what effects the effluent may have on the environment. Toxicity tests have shown that most refinery effluents are toxic but to varying extents. Some species are more sensitive and the toxicity may vary throughout the life cycle. Sublethal tests have found that not only can the effluents be lethal but also they can often have sublethal effects on growth and reproduction. Field studies have shown that oil refinery effluents often have an impact on the fauna, which is usually restricted to the area close to the outfall. The extent of the effect is dependent on the effluent composition, the outfall's  FOR CONTINUATION









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